5G is based on signals transmitted by radio waves, like television and radio broadcasting or cellular telephony as we know it today. In the initial phase of the deployment of the 5G network in Luxembourg, the frequency bands used will
be close to those of 2G, 3G or 4G.
Thereafter, new bands with a higher frequency may be used depending on performance and capacity needs.
The 5G network operates with a new type of active beamforming antennas that allow the radio signal to be directed to users depending on their needs instead of being transmitted constantly in all directions.
Each mobile operator must comply with the maximum emission thresholds to be determined by the authorities.
In Luxembourg, the regulations limiting the electromagnetic field produced by an antenna are among the strictest in Europe.
For the EMF ("Electromagnetic Field") part, the authorisation process is very rigorous in Luxembourg. Each base station must be authorized by the competent public administrations (Environment, ITM) that regulate the emission level.
In addition, all electrical equipment, including smartphones, must comply with an exposure limit value, which is measured for each device according to its SAR (Specific Absorption Rate).